School Education: An Official Story

In Jammu the performance of state-run schools is far better than that of in Kashmir. Seeing the ill-performance of the state-run schools in Kashmir the parents prefer to approach private sector for making the future of their children better.

Kashmir Life is reproducing a document from Economic Survey that offers an official version of the school education in Kashmir. 

Education

Education is the most important lever for social, economic and political transformation. A well educated and skilled population not only drives economic and social development but also ensures personal growth. The spread of education in society is at the foundation of success in today’s globalised world, where the real wealth of a country or state is not in its tangible natural resources but in knowledge. The importance of education as the foundation and building block for achieving national objectives and for building a more inclusive, equitable and sustainable society is well recognized. There is also a constitutional obligation to make available free and c:mpulsory education to all children in the age group of 06-14 years.

34.2 At the time of Independence, there were very few educational institutions in the state which were largely concentrated in the major towns. The state of affairs, as far as literacy is concerned, was such that the literacy rate of the state was only five per cent at that time. With the concerted efforts of the State Government, over the period, the education scenario improved in the State quite substantially. As a consequence of sustained investment in education sector, there has been an exponential growth of the Institutional network. The number of educational institutions in public sector reached to 23636 and those in private sector to 5200 in the State. The total enrollment has also increased to 17.40 lakh out of which the enrollment in primary classes is 8.95 lakh, in middle 4.26 lakh, in High Schools 2.30 lakh and in higher secondary schools it is 1.89 lakh.

TOWARDS UNIVERSAL LITERACY:

34.3 Literacy is at the heart of basic education for all, and of all human capabilities. Basic literacy is essential for eradicating poverty, reducing child mortality, curbing population growth, achieving gender equality and ensuring sustainable development, peace and democracy. Universal literacy also has special significance for those who have been historically deprived of access to education. In fact, education is a lifelong learning perspective not only to enhancing reading and writing capabilities, but also imparting a comprehensive set of life skills that enable people to access all development resources.

34.4 With the planned interventions and sustained efforts, considerable progress has been made in the State in the field of literacy. As already stated that at the time of Independence the literacy rate of the state was only five per cent. Census 1961 put the literacy rate of the State at 11.03% which increased to 18.58% during 1971 census. In 1981, the literacy rate was recorded at 26.67% and the projection for 1991 was made at 45% as no census was carried out during latter period. During the decade 2001- 2011, literacy rate increased from 55.50% to 68.74% in the State as against 64.84% to 74.04% at the national level.

34.5 Although, the literacy rate of the state is well short of the rate recorded at the national level, yet figures reveal that the rate of increase in the literacy in the state is faster than at the national level. During 1961-2011, while the literacy rate in the State increased by 58 points, it recorded increase of 46 points at the national level. Category-wise also, the rate of increase in literacy percentage both among males and females is better in the State than the country.

Census year

J&K

All India

Increase in literacy %age over the preceding census

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

J&K

All India

1961

16.97

4.26

11.03

40.39

15.33

28.30

1971

26.75

9.28

18.58

45.95

21.97

34.45

07.55

6.15

1981

36.29

15.88

26.67

56.38

29.76

43.57

8.09

9.12

2001

66.60

43.00

55.50

75.26

53.67

64.84

28.83

21.27

2011

78.26

58.01

68.74

82.14

65.46

74.04

13.24

9.20

34.6 Despite number of limiting factors, the State has been able to make a remarkable progress in the field of education as is evident from the above figures. Although, the outcomes of investment on education are no doubt quite visible, yet the State is committed to achieve universalization of education. A number of steps in this direction have been taken like easy access of schooling by way of opening/up gradation of Schools, development of infrastructure, provision of education manpower, establishment of Seasonal Camps at various Behaks, nutritional support to the children upto elementary level, free text Books, Scholarships etc.

GENDER GAP IN LITERACY:

34.7 Gender differential exists both in rural and urban areas, but it is high in rural areas. This can be attributed to a number of factors like Social dogmas, engagement of girl child in agricultural and other domestic activities etc. At the national level, the gender gap in literacy has decreased drastically from 25.06% in 1961 to 21.59% in 2001 and further to 16.68% in 2011. Contrary to this, the gender gap in literacy increased in the State from 12.71% in 1961 to 23.60% in 2001. Accordingly, the Govt, both at National and State level made all out efforts to reduce the gender gap in literacy. A number of steps for accomplishment of the goal of bridging gender gap in literacy were taken-up and these include National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary level (NPEGEL), Establishment of Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalas (KGBVs), Free Text-Books/ Scholarships, Community mobilization, Establishment of Women ITIs and Women wings in the existing ITIs, reservation of half of the seats for females in the Medical Colleges, Focus on adult female illiterates under Saakshar Bharat Mission (SBM) etc. As a result of these measures, the State has been able to break this impasse and put a halt to the ever increasing trajectory of gender gap for the first time during the decade 2001-2011 when the gender gap got reduced to 20.25%. This was possible only due to higher rate of increase in the female literacy viz; by 15.01% as against 11.66% recorded for males during 2001-11.

GENDER GAP IN LITERACY 1961-2011

S.N

o.

Census year

Males

Females

Male literacy rate

Increase in literacy %age over the preceding census year

Female Literacy rate

Increase in literacy % age over the preceding census year

Gender gap in literacy

1

1961

16.97

4.26

12.71

2

1971

26.75

9.78

9.28

5.02

17.47

3

1981

36.29

9.54

15.88

6.60

20.41

4

2001

66.60

30.31

43.00

27.12

23.60

5

2011 (Provisional)

78.26

11.66

58.01

15.01

20.25

34.8 The analysis has brought this fact to fore that the efforts put in by the Government through various interventions to reach to the far-flung areas and bring down literacy gap has materialized at ground level yet there is tremendous scope for bringing further improvements with focused attention.

DROPOUT RATE

34.9 Ever since the launch of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Mid Day Meal Scheme (MDMS) and initiation of host of steps like provision of free text-books, scholarships, various educational facilities at an easy reach etc, the State has been able to reduce the drop-out rate. The dropout rate in the State has declined to 11% in 2012-13. It is hoped that the dropout rate will certainly come down further and that too quite steeply in near future.

PUBLIC SPENDING IN SCHOOL EDUCATION

34.10 Recognizing the importance of education, public spending on school education sector increased rapidly during the successive Five Year Plans. The plan outlay earmarked for School Education Sector in the State increased from ` 1519.60 Crores in the 10th Five Year Plan (2002-07) to ` 2160.37 Crores during the 11th Five Year Plan (2007-12). The plan allocations thus enhanced by 42% during the said period. The 12th FY Plan (2012-17) Outlay for School Education sector has been worked out at ` 7514.93 Crores which is about 248% more than 11FYP allocation. While the allocation for School Education Sector was only 8.36% of the total 11th FYP allocations, it constitutes 11.08% of the proposed plan size for the 12th FYP period.

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN

34.11 The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is implemented as India’s main programme for universalization of elementary education (UEE). Its overall goals include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social gaps in enrolment levels and enhancement of learning levels of all children. The SSA has merged components of the National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and the residential school scheme, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV), that have focus on girl’s education.

34.12 The SSA is primarily a flagship programme aimed at achieving universalization of elementary education, enrollment of all out of School Children (OoSC) in Schools by 2012, retention of all OoSC Upper Primary stage by 2012, thrust on quality education and bridging gender and social category gaps in enrollment, retention and learning besides development of school infrastructure. To achieve the goal of above mentioned interventions, a survey to identify OoSC has been conducted throughout the State and is nearing completion. The data is being compiled and analyzed so as to ascertain a clear picture of the exact number of OoSC. This will help in devising strategies for covering these children under various levels of special training.

34.13 Significant progress has been made during 2011-12 and 2012-13 under SSA. 1136 seasonal centres for children of nomadic population have been opened in the state covering 31256 children. Easy access of education has been made available to 25349 habitations of the state by opening 22702 Primary and 10059 Upper Primary Schools. 97 Special residential schools under KGBV for girl students have been opened in economically and educationally backward areas.

34.14 A pilot programme named “Learning enhancement through active Pedagogy (LEAP)” has been launched in all the upper primary schools of the state. Under this programme, learning corners in science, Mathematics, Social science and languages were established during the year 2011-12 in 9673 UPS of the state. In these learning corners, students with the help of their teachers prepare teaching learning materials (TLM) and displays in learning corners which are used during class room transaction, thus enhancing the creative side of the children which is generally ignored. During 2012-13 a programme called “Know your state” has been launched in five districts of state on pilot basis to enable children to know about the physical, social, geographical and historical features of their own state. The programme has been acknowledged as the innovative programme of the state during Plan Appraisal of 2012-13.

34.15 Learning corners are being established in the primary schools of the state. For teacher training and re-orientation programme, a 30 days module for “Induction level training” for newly appointed teachers has been prepared. To enhance quality education, funds to all the UPS of the state are being provided for “wall mounts learning display” where all the creative work of the children will be displayed. During the next Financial Year urban deprived and under privileged children belonging to slums will be focused upon. Effective strategies for their access and enrollment will be formulated.

INITIATIVES FOR GIRL EDUCATION:

34.16 For accomplishment of the goal of bridging gender gap in literacy, National Programme for education of girls at elementary level (NPEGEL) is a focused intervention aimed at enhancing girl education. This intervention provides for development of “Model School” in every cluster with more emphasis on girl enrollment especially dropouts and never enrolled once. It provides need based incentives like stationary, books, sports equipments etc for girls in the identified schools. So far 326 Model Schools have been established under this intervention.

34.17 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) is yet another initiative for enhancing girl education. It is a scheme for setting up residential schools at upper primary level for adolescent girls belonging to SC, ST and OBC community. Under this intervention the enrolled girl students are provided with free boarding and lodging facility including the day to day expenses. So far 99 KGBVs have been established.

BETI ANMOL

34.18 The State Government rolled out “Beti Anmol” scheme during 2011-12 with a view to arrest post matric dropout rate of girl students belonging to Below Poverty Line (BPL) and enhancing their employment prospects. Under the scheme, an amount of ` 5000/- is to be given as incentive to the girl students of Educationally Backward Blocks, who pass their matriculation examination and get themselves enrolled in the 11th class. The incentive is given in the shape of a bank deposit the amount of which is en-cashable only after the students pass their 12th class examination. Beti Anmol scheme is presently catering to the girl students hailing from 97 educationally backward blocks of the State. The ultimate objective of this new initiative is to encourage the education of the girl students in the State. The Scheme is operative from academic session 2011-12 both for winter and summer zones and 2560 girls students were provided incentive during the said year. During 2012-13, against the target coverage of 6439 beneficiaries, the achievement ending December 2012 is 2760.

RASHTRIYA MADHYAMIK SHISKSHIYA ABHIYAAN (RMSA)

34.19 The challenge to ensure education for all requires concerted efforts to strengthen the education system at all levels. The Sarva Shikhsha Abhiyaan program set up by the government to bring elementary education to millions of children has been successful to a large extent, and has thus created a need for strengthening secondary education infrastructure across the country. Accordingly, the HRD Ministry GOI devised a secondary education scheme called Rashtriya Madhyamik Shikhsha Abhiyaan (RMSA) during 11th FYP at a total cost of ` 20,120 crore.

34.20 Rashtriya Madhyamik Shikhsha Abhiyaan (RSMA) is aimed at expanding and improving the standards of secondary education — classes VIII to X. The RMSA would also take secondary education to every corner of the country by ensuring a secondary school (up to class X) within a radius of 5km for every neighborhood.

34.21 Rashtriya Madhyamik Shikhsha Abhiyaan (RMSA) is the most recent initiative of Government of India to achieve the goal of universalization of secondary education (USE).

34.22 The vision/Objectives of RMSA are;

a)     The vision for secondary education is to make good quality education available, accessible and affordable to all young persons in the age group of 14-18 years.

b)    To provide secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation, which should be 5 Kms. for secondary schools and 7-10 Kms. for higher secondary schools.

c)     To remove gender, socio-economic and disability barriers.

d)    To ensure universal access of secondary education by 2017 (GER of 100%) and Universal retention by 2020.

THE MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS REGISTERED UNDER RMSA DURING 2011-12

S. No

Item

Achievements

1

Middle Schools upgraded to High School level

275

2

Funds for construction of upgraded Middle Schools released during 2009-10 and 2010-11

239

3

High Schools approved for strengthening

252

4

High Schools facilities. provided  with  drinking  water  and  Toilet

281

5

Annual School grant @ ` 50,000/-provided to High Schools and Higher Secondary Schools having secondary sections.

2014

6

Minor repair grant @ ` 25000/-provided to High Schools having their own building.

1611

7

Subject experts @ 2 per subject for 07 subjects per districts trained.

308

8

Subject specific teachers covered under in-service teacher training.

7090

9

Students covered under local excursion

70077

10

Incentive @ ` 3000/-approved for SC/ST girls.

10247

11

Construction of Model School Scheme in EBBs assigned to JKPCC

19

12

Construction of Girls Hostel in EBBs assigned to JKPCC

19

 

MID-DAY-MEAL SCHEME (MDMS)

34.23 In keeping with the constitutional provisions to raise the level of nutrition of children and enable them to develop in a healthy manner, the Government of India launched the scheme “National Programme of Nutritional Support to Education (NPNSPE)”, commonly known as Mid-Day-Meal Scheme (MDMS) during the year 1995. MDMS was expected to enhance enrolment, retention, attendance of children in schools apart from improving their nutritional levels. This was extended to upper primary (classes VI to VIII) children at the national level in 3479 EBBs in 2007 and then universalized at the elementary level in the year 2008. MDMS is primarily managed and implemented by School Management/Village Education Committees.

 

PROGRESS UNDER MDM SCHEME

S. No

Year

Central Assistance (Excl. cost of food grains supplied) (` in lakhs)

State Contri. (` in lakhs)

Total alloc. (` in lakhs)

Total Exp. (` in lakhs) (Upto Septemb er, 2012)

Utilization Percentage

Students Benefited ( in lakhs)

1.

2011-12

9387.531

2694.57

12082. 104

8566.384

70.90

9.22

2.

2012-13 (Upto Sept.,2012)

7175.39

1846.86

9022.2 51

5821.45

64.52

9.85

 

34.24 During 2011-12 and 2012-13 (till Sep., 2012), 9.85 lakh students have been covered under MDM Scheme. 947 Kitchen-cum-stores were constructed during 2011- 12 and funds for construction of 6000 more such Kitchen-cum-stores have been released during the year 2012-13. 1265 schools have been provided with kitchen devices during the current financial year 2012-13. 8058 additional cook-cum-helpers are being engaged thereby raising the total 29536 cook-cum-helpers under the scheme.

34.25 The Government has taken necessary steps to regulate MDM Scheme by putting in place professional manpower on contractual basis under the component MME for monitoring of MDM Scheme and adopting web based system of reporting and IVRS. The MIS would be integrated with Interactive Voice Response System to capture the information on daily basis and monitor the Scheme on real time basis. It will also be used as a mechanism for social audit and this will enhance transparency and accountability in the implementation of the MDMS and enhance the overall effectiveness of the Scheme.

34.26 However, a detailed survey of implementation of intended nutritional values including calorific value, protein inclusion, additional nutritional supplements and vitamins, as detailed in the scheme, needs to be carried out to ensure that the nutrition scheme is implemented in both spirit and letter.

 

SAAKSHAR BHARAT MISSION PROGRAMME:

34.27 A new initiative for Adult Literacy has been taken at the national level and 20 Districts of J&K, having less than 50% Literacy Rate as per Census 2001, were approved under Saakshar Bharat Mission Programme. This is another major flagship scheme and focuses on the female adult literacy in the age group of 15 years and above across the state excepting erstwhile Jammu/Samba District.

34.28 “J&K Adult Literacy Society” has been registered. State Literacy Mission Authority, Zilla Shiksha Samitis’, and Panchayat Shiksha Samitis’ have been constituted for effective implementation of the programme. These committees are required to achieve a target of increasing literacy rate by 10%. The scheme is anchored with Panchayati Raj Institutions and local self-government bodies and adopts a targeted approach with focus on women. Moreover, it is being monitored at the national level on-line.

34.29 Selection of District level, Block level Co-coordinators are in progress. Learners Assessment was conducted on 26th August 2012 in all districts except District Poonch, evaluation of answer scripts is under process. Identification of adult non-illiterates stands completed in most of the districts. Adult Education Centers (AECs) has been identified at Panchayat Level and established in District Baramulla. Bank Accounts have been opened at District level where as opening of bank account at block level is under process. However, Saakshar Bharat is being revamped at the national level and will give special focus on young adults and OoS adolescents (15–19 years).

 

IMPROVING QUALITY OF EDUCATION:

34.30 Although the state has made substantial expansion in schooling facilities and equalization of educational opportunities during the past few decades due to introduction of various new programme interventions like SSA / RMSA and other flagship programmes/ schemes, yet the quality parameters could not be maintained in serving the requirements of the community to the desired extent. To overcome this concern, the state has adopted the norm of 1 km distance for the purpose of establishment of a primary school. As a result, the state has been able to provide primary school within the easy reach of students. Similarly, with regard to the upgradation of schools, the policy framework has been liberalized. The state is now performing better in the field of education as compared to many other states of the country, despite many constraints. Besides, focus on Teacher Education by incurring the budgetary provisions under SSA/ RMSA and State Sector, exposure visits of teachers to other states has been the latest initiative in getting the Teachers acquainted about the strides made by other states in quality education.

 

NOTABLE ACHIEVEMENTS 2011-12 AND 2012-13

34.31 The following achievements have been made by the Department of School Education during 2011-12 and 2012-13 under state plan;

  •  Additional Accommodation to 81 High/Higher Secondary schools constructed and 215 more are at different stages of construction under State Sector.
  •  122 Multipurpose science labs constructed under Special Plan Assistance and 44 no. of labs are under construction.
  •  179 toilet blocks constructed at various High/Higher Secondary Schools under SPA and 136 Toilet blocks are under progress.
  •  495 School buildings constructed under District Sector.
  •  93 no. of works (Strengthening/Compound wall/ Renovation) have been completed and 24 no. of works are under progress during current financial year.
  •  5909 girls students of 11th class covered under Beti Anmol scheme.
  • Construction of 06 DIET complexes at Samba, Banihal, Kupwara, Ganderbal, Pulwama and Kulgam taken in hand.
  •  Const. of 02 Auditorium & 02 Teacher Bhawan has been taken up under District Plan.

6 COMMENTS

  1. The whole education system hijacked by politicains. But still you see the our top officers are from government schools, due to the dedication of teachers.

  2. It iz a big achieve ment in a turmoiled territoy but da whole education system in a need of political free activities on fasttrack basis over all it is.better

  3. Alone the teachers are not responsible for the poor performance . The top officers of school education department in leauge with politicians and beuracrats have ruined the whole affair by playing with the innocent and poor students.What is the fun of making transfers of teachers/ masters and lectures in the mid of session simply to appease politicians and corruptions. I have some evidences about affair of transfers by CEO;s and chief education officer srinagar in particular which has become money laundering machines with the help of corrupt clerks,,,,

    • I agre vd mr Faroq .ovr education system is run by politicians.poor n inocent teachers are being made scapegoats by the red tapism system.the clerks do run whole the afairs in the ofices.ceos and zeos ofices haue become money minting machines.i m fed up with this job due to jealous authorities and coruptd oficials

  4. True, Govt. has launched various schemes to ensure quantity & quality education, but it is equally true that much needs to be still done to bring the govt. education system at par with the private one. And the first step towards this goal will be to ensure a corruption free education department itself.

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